In circuit analysis, simple circuits can be analysed by using the basic analysing tools like ohms law, KVL and KCL. But for a complex circuit that consists of various controlled sources, these tools in addition with series and parallel methods are unreliable. Therefore, to find the variables of a branch in such circuit, nodal and […]

## Source Transformation

Source transformation methods are used for circuit simplification to modify the complex circuits by transforming independent current sources into independent voltage sources and vice-versa. To analyse the circuits we can apply a simple voltage and current divider techniques by using these transformations. This source transformation method can also be used to convert a circuit from […]

## Kirchhoff’s Laws

Introduction Many of the electrical circuits are complex in nature and the computations required to find the unknown quantities in such circuits, using simple ohm’s law and series/parallel combination simplifying methods is not possible. Therefore, in order to simplify these circuits Kirchhoff’s laws are used. These laws are the fundamental analytical tools that are used […]

## Ohm’s Law and Electric Power

For analyzing DC circuits , generally we use different methods such as ohm’s law, network theorems and other circuit simplification tools. A DC circuit analysis is performed mainly to determine the unknown quantities such as voltage, current, resistance and power which are allied with one or more elements of an electronic circuit. As a basic […]

## DC Motor

Introduction Almost every mechanical movement that we see today is accomplished by an electric motor. An electric motor takes electrical energy and produces mechanical energy. Electric motors come in various ratings and sizes. Some applications of large electric motors include elevators, rolling mills and electric trains. Some applications of small electric motors are robots, automobiles […]

## Diode Testing

Introduction The first and foremost thing before start developing or troubleshooting the electronic circuits or projects is that one must require a sound knowledge on basic electronic components and their working if they are placed in energized circuits. The complete knowledge on the way in which components are tested is the key for having good […]

## Diode Applications

Introduction As a simplest semiconductor component, diode has a wide variety of applications in modern electronic systems. Various electronic and electrical circuits use this component as an essential device to produce the required outcome. Diode allows the current flow only in one direction hence acts as a one-way switch. Diode is made by P and […]

## DC Circuits Basics

Introduction A circuit that can be AC or DC is the combination of active elements (power supply sources) and passive elements (resistors, capacitors and inductors). Thus, the circuit theory or analysis helps to understand the circuit behavior or characteristics by finding out the voltages and currents in various elements in a circuit by using different […]

## Darlington Transistor

Introduction to Darlington Transistor A Darlington transistor or simply Darlington pair is mainly used to offer a very high current gain even with low base current. Darlington configuration was invented by Sidney Darlington in the year of 1953. In today’s market, wide variety of Darlington transistors are available that are varied by polarity, collector current, […]

## FET as a Switch

Introduction Wide variety of advantages such as high input impedance, simple fabrication, simple operations, etc. makes the Field Effect Transistors (FETs) to be used popularly in different applications particularly in integrated circuit systems. FETs are the 2nd generation transistors after the BJTs. These can be used as amplifiers in oscilloscopes, testing and measuring instruments, electronic […]