Electronic System

electronic system block diagram

Electronic System Every electronic device we use in our daily life is one type of system. The systems working depending up on electronic variables like power or voltage or current is known as Electronic system. Number of blocks having different input – output relationship are connected together to form a system, which is supposed to […]

Negative Feed Back Circuit

Feedback in common emitter circuit

What is negative Feed Back? The prime concerns of the electronic systems are Stability and Accuracy. To maintain these key factors, some part of the output is connected back to the input of the system, which is called feedback. The control systems are classified as 2 types based on the feedback connection, such as closed […]

Crystal Oscillator(Quartz Crystal)

Equivalent Circuit of Quartz Crystal

Quartz crystal oscillator is an oscillator circuit that utilizes quartz crystal as the resonator to stabilize or control its frequency. These are often used for generating the clock of analog circuits and digital systems. These are employed for applications for which a greater stability is required, i.e., accurately maintaining an exact frequency of oscillations such […]

RC Oscillator

RC Phase Shift Network

An RC oscillator is one of the sinusoidal oscillators and produces a sine wave output by using linear electronic components. The tuned LC oscillators operate well at higher frequencies, but at low frequencies, the capacitors and inductors in tank circuit or time circuit would be very large size. Hence, RC oscillators are more suitable for […]

Relaxation Oscillator

Relaxation Oscillator Concept

Relaxation oscillators are widely used in applications with relaxed phase-noise requirements in a form of fully integrated circuits as they do not consists of inductors. In contrast to LC oscillators, relaxation oscillator consist only one energy storing element. The oscillatory waveform depends on the nonlinear characteristics of the circuit rather than on a frequency selective […]

Wein Bridge Oscillator

Wien Bridge Oscillator

Due to the advantages like good frequency stability, very low distortion and ease of tuning, a Wien bridge oscillator becomes the most popular audio frequency range signal generator circuit. This type of oscillator uses RC feedback network so it can also be considered as RC oscillator. The main difference between the general oscillator and Wien […]

Colpitts Oscillator

Colpitts Oscillator Tank circuit

A Colpitts oscillator consists of two capacitive reactances and one inductive reactance in the tank circuit or feedback network. The circuit of ¬†Colpitts oscillator is similar to that of Hartley oscillator except the difference that rather than making tapped connection at the inductor junctions, it is made at the capacitor junction. Hence the tank circuit […]

Hartley Oscillator

Hartley Oscillator Circuit

The Hartley oscillator is one of the classical LC feedback circuits and used to generate high frequency waveforms or signals. As we discussed in the LC oscillators article that if the reactance elements X1 and X2 are chosen as inductors and X3 as capacitor in the feedback network, then the oscillator is called as Hartley […]

LC Oscillator Basics

LC Tank Circuit

LC oscillators are widely used to generate high frequency waves, hence these are also called as RF oscillators. It is possible to produce the frequencies at higher range (above 500 MHz) with the practical values of inductors and capacitors. These types of oscillators are used in RF generators, high-frequency heating, radio and TV receivers, etc. […]