Binary Encoder

Block Diagram of a Binary Encoder

An encoder is a device which converts familiar numbers or characters or symbols into a coded format. It accepts the alphabetic characters and decimal numbers as inputs and produces the outputs as a coded representation of the inputs. It encodes the given information into a more compact form. In other words, it is a combinational […]

Binary Multiplication

4 bit multiplication by shift method

A binary multiplier is a combinational logic circuit used in digital systems to perform the multiplication of two binary numbers. These are most commonly used in various applications especially in the field of digital signal processing to perform the various algorithms. Commercial applications like computers, mobiles, high speed calculators and some general purpose processors require […]

Carry-Lookahead Adder


In case of parallel adders, the binary addition of two numbers is initiated when all the bits of the augend and the addend must be available at the same time to perform the computation. In a parallel adder circuit, the carry output of each full adder stage is connected to the carry input of the […]

Introduction to Counters

Like shift registers and other combinational circuits, there is another important element in digital electronics which we use most. They are counters. Counters are used not only for counting but also for measuring frequency and time ; increment memory addresses . Counters are specially designed synchronous sequential circuits, in which , the state of the […]

Harmonic Frequencies

standing wave pattern

Introduction The term ‘Harmonics’ is related to the fundamental frequency of a waveform. Before learning about harmonics, we should be familier with some of the concepts of wave forms. Let’s discuss about the topics Natural frequency and forced frequency. Natural frequency When a body is vibrating freely without any external forces applied on it, then […]

Introduction to Combinational Logic Circuits

Logic Circuit

Digital signals are processed by the digital system which can be built with various logic gates. These logic circuits are made of various logic gates , by connecting them in certain combinations , in order to produce the required output.Digital logic circuits are mainly classified into two types , sequential logic circuits and combinational logic circuits. […]

Digital Logic AND Gate

and gate with diodes

AND Gate AND gate can be designed by using two simple diodes. The circuit driving voltage V is applied to the parallely connected diodes and the output is collected as the voltage drop at the diodes. In logic gates, the terms high voltage level means +5 V and low logic level means 0 V or […]

Digital Logic OR Gate

or gate using diodes

A gate is the functional logic device which operates on input signals. Logic gates are the primary devices or basic elements for logic device design. It performs logical operation based on the input signals. Examples for logic gates are NAND, NOR, AND, OR, EX – OR, NOT and BUFFER. In our previous tutorials we learnt […]