Different Types of Semiconductors

Example of Fuses

Before the advent of semiconductors, all solids were divided into two groups. They are conductors and insulators. Conductors: The basic definition of conductor is which metal have very low resistance called conductors. Example of conductors is aluminum which is most repeatedly used, has a very low resistivity of about 10-6Ω-cm…
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Metal Detector Robotic Vehicle

Metal Detector Robot - Receiver Circuit

Land mines buried under the ground causes threat to the lives and affect the economy of the nation. Detection and removing of these mines manually is a dangerous task, which may sometimes causes accidents. In such situations robots aid in detection of the land mines. Not only  land mines, these…
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Bluetooth Controlled Electronic Home Appliances

Bluetooth Controlled Electronic Home Appliances System - Circuit Diagram

This article explains you how to control the electrical appliances using an Android device. We have already seen how a DTMF controlled home appliances system works in the earlier post. Operating conventional wall switches is difficult for physically handicapped or elder people. This project provides the solution to this problem…
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GSM Controlled Robot using Microcontroller

GSM Controlled Robot Circuit Diagram using 8051 Microcontroller

GSM controlled robot or SMS controlled robot is a wireless robot which performs the necessary actions by receiving a set of instructions in the form a Short Message Service (SMS). In this project we can control the robot directions like forward, backward, left and right by sending SMS from the…
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Human Detection Robot

Human Detection Robot Circuit Diagram - Receiver Section

Human detection robot is not a new technology. Many types of human detection robots were designed depending on the application. During the natural calamities like earthquakes, it is difficult to rescue the human beings under the buildings. Though detection by rescue team is done, it consumes a lot of time….
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Non Inverting Operational Amplifiers

Equivalent Circuit of Ideal Non-Inverting Amplifier

We have already studied the basics of operational amplifiers and inverting operational amplifier operation in the earlier posts. Now let us see the working of Non – inverting operational amplifier. To study the basics of operational amplifier and its applications go through the article Op Amp Basics and Applications. To study inverting…
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Inverting Operational Amplifiers

Equivalent circuit of ideal inverting amplifier

In previous article we have studied the basics of operational amplifier and its applications. Now let us see the basic configuration an operational amplifier that is inverting operational amplifier. To study the basics of operational amplifier and its applications go through the article Operational Amplifier Basics. In previous article we…
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Instrumentation Amplifier Basics and Applications

Instrumentation Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Many process control systems, consumer systems and industrial systems require precise measurement of physical parameters like weight, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. The measurement of physical quantities normally is carried out with the help of transducers. Transducer is a device which converts one form energy into another. For example microphone converts…
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Differential Amplifier Circuit using Transistors

Differential Amplifier Circuit Diagram

The amplifier which amplifies the difference between two input signals is called as Differential amplifier. The differential amplifier configuration is very much popular and it is used in variety of analog circuits. It is basic building in operational amplifiers. Below figure shows the ideal differential amplifier. Here V1 and V2…
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